Have you ever had heartburn? What about a burning in your throat?

These symptoms could be the cause of acid reflux.

To understand exactly what acid reflux is, we turned to Dr. Michael Johns, MD of the USC Voice Center at Keck Medicine of USC.

These are his in-depth insights into acid reflux:

Acid reflux occurs when acidic stomach juices back up from the stomach into the esophagus. This acid sometimes spills into the larynx.

There are two different kinds of acid reflux:

Gastroesophageal reflux (GERD)
Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR)

A person can have one or both kinds of reflux.

GERD occurs when stomach acid flows up from the stomach into the esophagus. It usually occurs at night when people are laying down.

Symptoms may include: heartburn, belching, regurgitation of stomach contents and swallowing difficulties.

LPR occurs when stomach acid travels up through the esophagus and spills into the larynx or pharynx (voice box). It can occur during the day or night. The acid irritates the vocal folds and surrounding tissues. As the acid moves quickly up through the esophagus into the larynx, patients with LPR often do not experience heartburn.

Symptoms may include: hoarseness, excessive mucus (throat clearing), post-nasal drip, coughing, throat soreness or burning, choking episodes (can wake person up out of a sound sleep), difficulty swallowing or feeling of a lump in the throat.

How is acid reflux treated?

Reflux can be treated through dietary and lifestyle modifications, medications—usually proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), and in some cases surgery. Certain foods are more likely to cause acid reflux. By removing or limiting these foods from your diet, you can reduce incidences of acid reflux.

Lifestyle modifications:

Do not lie down or exercise directly after eating or wear clothing that is tight around the waist. Eat 3 to 4 small meals a day instead of 2 to 3 large ones. If you are overweight, try to lose weight. Tobacco can cause reflux, so reducing or stopping smoking can be helpful. Do not eat anything 2 to 3 hours before going to bed. If reflux is occurring at night, elevate the head of your bed 4 to 6 inches by putting phone books under the front legs or by buying a wedge pillow. Using 2 or more regular pillows can make reflux worse as it causes the body to curl.

How to take reflux medication:

If you are taking one PPI a day, take it in the morning on an empty stomach 30 minutes to an hour before eating breakfast. If you take two PPIs a day, take one in the morning and the other one on an empty stomach 30 minutes to an hour before dinner.

How long before I see an improvement?

It can take 4 to 6 weeks for acid burns in the esophagus and larynx to heal, so do not stop medication or dietary/lifestyle modifications without consulting your doctor. It can take 3 to 4 months for full resolution.

What problems can acid reflux cause?

Long-term reflux in can cause laryngeal ulcers or granulomas, vocal fold scarring, pneumonia, Barrett’s esophagus, and in some cases esophageal or throat cancer.

To learn more about the USC Voice Center, visit http://ent.keckmedicine.org/treatments-services/voice-swallowing/. To schedule an appointment with the USC Voice Center of Keck Medicine of USC, call (800)USC-CARE (800-872-2273) or visit http://ent.keckmedicine.org/patient-information/request-an-appointment/